Saturday, September 20, 2008

Chronology of Mahabharat

Following is a collection of investigations done by many scholars on Mahabharat

Mahabharat: A Myth or a Reality
By Prasad Gokhale

It has been believed by some historians and laymen that Mahabharat is just a fictitious fable emerged from the fantastic brain of the Sage Ved Vyas. It has been contended that such a 'war' could not have occured owing to the detailed description of various facets of the 'epic'. However, tradition as well as many Bharatiya scholars have all along maintained that Mahabharat did actually occur and is a complete reality.

Mahabharat is not just a story, but the detailed account of a event occured in the past. The few points are noted below that indicate a few differences in what is 'reality' and 'myth'.

1. It has been written in the epic from time to time that Mahabharat is a "itihas" which exclusively means "thus occured". The words "Puraan" and "Itihas" were specifically coined by the Arya people to catagorize the "ancient" and "recent" events. Both the words denote history that has occured at different times.

2. It is mentioned in Aadiparva, Adhyaya 62 that the annals of the Bharat-Dynasty are recorded in the work.

3. It has been clearly stated in the Aadiparva, Bheeshmaparva etc. that this is "itihas". If the intentions of the writer were to write a poem or a work of fiction, he would have stated it to be a "mahakavya" or "katha".

4. It would to absurd to say that the Mahabharat is not a "itihas" due to its poetic nature. It was a custom in those days to write everything in poetic form.

5. Ved Vyas had decided to write down the "itihas" even before the initiation of the Mahabharat War. Therefore during the course of the War, Vyas meticulously noted down all the possible details. If it were a work of fiction, why would a person like Vyas want to fill his work with such minute and unnecessary details ?

6. A number of dynasties with their lond lineage of kings have been presented in the work. More than 50 kings from King Barhi to the Pandava King have been recorded. Additional information about the King, his wife, his scions, his relations, etc. have been accounted in great detail. If it were just fiction, only 4-5 kings would have sufficed to build the story on. Then why such mind-boggling details ?

7. The dynasties recorded in the Ramayan and the Mahabharat concur without a difference. Even the relations between different kings and their dynasties in both the great "epics" match with each other. If both were mere "epics" written by two entirely different at two different times, why would everything match even upto minor details ?

Mahabharat is of a later date than the Ramayan. Why would the author of the Mahabharat borrow the same ideas and characters as those of the author of Ramayan ?

8. Usually, the story of any "Maha-Kaavya" circulates about one or two main characters. If this were the case with Mahabharat, who would then be considered the "hero" of the drama ?

9. Many events mentioned in the Ramayan and Mahabharat are the same. Eg.: The mother of (latter) King Sagar was poisoned by his step-mother so that her child would be aborted. But the child was born nevertheless, who was therefore named Sagar.

10. The cities established by certain kings has been noted in detail.

11. All the characters in the "epic" are well-portrayed. Even single facet of their character and important events in their life have been recorded. Are such detailed accounts important in a "Maha-kavya"?

12. The weapons mentioned in the Ramayan and the Mahabharat are somewhat same. Infact, some weapons in the Ramayan are not mentioned in the latter "epic". (eg. Soorya'stra, Yamya'stra, Shoolva'stra..etc.) [ Considering the true occurance of the two great events, the above mentioned weapons might have disappreared in the era in-between the two events took place].

13. If it were a poetic fiction, such comprehensive account of the events on the battle-field would'nt have been given. For a poem, it is far-fetched. It will only serve the purpose of boring the reader to death!

14. The description of such myriad of characters is astonishing. It is impossible for one single-mind to be the genesis of that number of personality-types. It could only be true if the Mahabharat is the recording of a real-life drama.

15. The time and place of events have been accurately recorded. All such recordings are redudant for a "Maha-kavya".

16. Not much poetic description of the flora-and-fauna is given. Such description in ornate language is only used in fictional works and not while recording history.

17. Vyas mentions to have written this "itihas" after the death of King Dhrutarashtra. Why would he write so ? Did Shakespeare say that he wrote "Hamlet" after the death of Hamlet himself ?

18. The Greek historian Megasthenes has stated that Chandragupta Maurya was the 138 King in the lineage of Shri Krishna. This means that Shri Krishna did exist in the bygone era and that Mahabharat did really occur.

19. It was a custom to keep a track of the Kings lineage. The Chinese traveller confirms the above. Manahbharat being a true account of a occured War, such lineages are seen to be recorded.

20. Archaeological excations has discovered the submerged city of Dwaraka. This is the same Dwaraka as mentioned in the Mahabharat. [ The city of Dwaraka has been reckoned to have drowned in between 2000-3000 B.C.]

21. The astronomical recordings in the Mahabharat "epic" and other scriptures (Bhagwat), given the correct positions of the planets and stars during that time. How could a work of fiction be proved using mathematical tools ?

The Mahabharat Chronology
By Dr.K.N.S. Patnaik

The present European calendar came into vogue around 7 A.D. India, since ancient times, has been following the lunar calendar. The Western calendar has undergone many variations and adjustments from time to time e.g., at one stage the first six months had 31 days each while the last six months were 30 days each.

Uptil the Mahabharat War the world had a single, unitary administration under Vedic sovereigns, which reckoned the day from sunrise to sunrise centering on India. Consequently, other regions of the world stuck to the Indian time schedule. Thus for instance, when the sun rose in India at around 5.30 am it used to be midnight hour in Britain. Therefore the Vedic administration in Britain calculated its date from midnight to midnight.

When in the course of time the world became divided into regional states resulting in mutual strife. The British ruled India for about 200 years uptil 1947 A.D. The midnight to midnight reckoning under British rule, emanated originally from the Indian sunrise time. Modern calculations based on that midnight time often result in a error of one or two years in timing.

Before proceeding to analyze the Mahabharat chronology let us first familiarize ourselves with the Vedic lunar calendar. In its cycle of 60 years, the names of successive years are :
1. Prabhava 2. Vibhava 3. Sukla 4. Pramoodotha
5. Pajothpatthi 6. Agnirasa 7. Srimukha 8. Bhava
9. Yuva 10. Dhata 11. Eswara 12. Bahudhanya
13. Pramadi 14. Vikrama 15. Vishu 16. Chitrabhanu
17. Swabhanu 18. Tharana 19. Parthiva 20. Vyaya
21. Sarvajittu 22. Sarvadhari 23. Virodhi 24. Vikriti
22. Khara 26. Nandana 27. Vijaya 28. Jaya
29. Manmatha 30. Durmukhi 31. Havilambi 32. Vilhambi
33. Vikari 34. Sarvari 35. Plava 36. Shubhakritu
37. Sobhakruthu 38. Krodhi 39. Vishwavasu 40. Paridhavi
41. Plavanga 42. Keelaka 43. Sowmya 44. Sadharana
45. Voridhikrutu 46. Paridhavi 47. Pramadicha 48. Ananda
49. Rakshasa 50. Nala 51. Pingala 52. Kalayukti
53. Siddharthi 54. Roudri 55. Durmati 56. Dundubhi
57 Rudhirodgari 58. Rathakshi 59. Krodhana 60. Akshaya

Months :
1. Chaitra 2. Vaishakha 3. Jyeshta 4. Aashadha 5. Shravana 6. Bhadrapada
7. Ashwin 8. Kartika 9. Margasheersha 10. Pausha 11. Maagha
12. Phalguna

Stars :
1. Ashwini 2. Bharani 3. Krutika 4. Rohini 5. Mruga 6. Ardra 7. Punarvasu 8. Pushya 9. Aslesha
10. Magha 11. Poorva 12. Uttara 13. Hastha 14. Chitra 15. Swati 16. Vishakha 17. Anuradha 18. Moola
19. Jyeshta 20. Poorvashadha 21. Uttarashadha 22. Shravana 23. Dhanishta 24. Satabhisha 25. Poorvabhadra 26. Uttarabhadra 27. Revati
Kaliyug started on Pramadi Chaitra Bright 1st day, Friday (BC 3102-2-20) at 2-27-30 P.M.


Mahabharat events preceded the Kaliyug:
1. Karna's Birth : Magha Bright half 1st day. It is said that he was older than Yudhisthira by 16 years.

2. Emperor Pandu reached Mount Saptashrunga in Paramodoota Ashwin Bright 5th day. Just one year after Yudhisthira was born.

3. Yudhisthira's Birth : Yudhisthira was born on Pajothpatti Ashwin Bright 5th day, in Jyeshta Star, in Sagittarius Lagna, at midday Abhijit Muhurta. That was just years. 127-5-25 prior to Kaliyug (roughly 3229-8-15 B.C)

4. Bhima's Birth : Bhima was born on Agnirasa Ashwin dark 9th day in Magha Star, after midday. He was younger than Yudhishtira by 1 year and 19 days.

5. Arjun's Birth : Srimukha Phalguna Full Moon Day during the day in Uttara Star. Younger than Bhima by yr. 1-4-21

6. Nakula and Sahadev's Birth : Bhava Phalguna New Moon day, Midday, in Star Ashwini. Younger than Arjuna by yr. 1-0-15

7. Lord Krishna was born on Shrimukha Shravana Dark 8th day, just after midnight in Taurus Lagna.

8. Duryodhana's Birth : Just one day after Bhima's birth. From that day onwards everyday the rest 99 Kauravas and their sister were born. Similarly, Hidimba, Baka and Kichaka were born in the same period between Magha and Swati Stars.

9. Emperor Pandu expired on Sarvadhari Chaitra Bright 12th day in Uttara Star. Arjuna was then yrs. 14-0-7 days old. Yudhistira was then yrs. 16-6-7 years old.

10. Pandavas were brought in Hastina on Sarvadhari Chaitra Dark 13th day, that is, 16 days after their father's death. Death rituals lasted for 12 days from Sarvadhari Chaitra Dark 13th day to Vaishakh Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was 16 years, 6 months and 28 days of age.

11. Pandavas stayed in Hastinapur for 13 years from Sarvadhari Vaishakha Bright 10th day to Plava Vaishakha Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 29-6-23 days old. They learnt archery under Drona.

12. Archery exhibition : Plava Vaishakha Full Moon Day.

13. King Drupada taken captive : Fight with Drupada from Plava Vaishakha Dark 5th day for a period of of yr. 1-4-5 days, that is upto Shubhakrit Bhadrapada Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 31-0-5 days old.

14. Yudhishthira ws made Crown-Prince on Shubhakrit Ashwayuja Bright 10th day when he was 31-0-5 days old.

15. Pandavas stayed at Hastinapur for yrs. 5-4-20 days, upto Plavanga Maagha New Moon Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 36-4-25 days old.

16. Entered Varnavrata : Plavanga Phalguna Bright 8th Day. Yudhishtir was yrs. 36-5-3 days old.

17. The Lac Palace was set on fire on Keelaka Phalguna 13/14th Day night in the third Jhamu or Quarter. ( A day consists of 8 prahars, 4 during day time and 4 during night.) Pandavas crossed river Ganga on Keelaka Phalguna New Moon Day morning.

18. Demon Hidimba was slain : on Sowmya Chaitra Bright 1st Day.

19. Ghatotkacha was born on Sowmya Ashwin Bright 2nd Day, and he grew up as an adult immediately.

20. Pandavas stayed in Salihotashramam for 6 months, that is from Sowmya Ashwayuja Bright 2nd Day to Sadharana Chaitra Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishtira was yrs. 38-5-7 days old.

21. Panadavas lived in Ekachakrapuram for 6 months from Sadharana Chaitra Bright 2nd Day to Ashwayuja Bright 2nd Day.

22. Demon Baka was slain : on Sadharana Bright 10th Day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 39-0-5 days old.

23. Pandavas stayed in Ekachakrapuram for 1 month 10 days more, upto Sadharana Margashirsha Dark 5th Day. Then they headed for Panchal Kingdom, and in 3 days reached Dhoumya's Ashram. They stayed there for 15 days, and on the 18th day, reached the capital of Panchal Kingdom, that is, on Sadharana Pausha 7th Day.

24. Princess Draupadi's Swayamvaram took place on Sadhrana Pausha Bright 10th Day.

25. In Panchala Kingdom, Pandavas stayed there for yr. 1-0-15 days, that is, tiil Virodhikrithu Pausha New Moon Day. Yudhishthir was yrs. 40-3-25 days old.

26. Pandavas were recieved in Hastinapur on Virodhikrithu Maagha Bright 2nd Day and were granted half-Kingdom. They stayed in Hastinapur for 5 years and 6 months, upto Pingala Shravana Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 45-9-27 days old. Indrapratha City was being built during this period.

27. Yudhisthira was coronated on Pingala Ashwayuja Bright 10th Day. He was then 46-0 years old.

28. Arjuna went on pilgrimage for 12 years. He started in Kalayukthi and returned in Pramodhoota. He married Subhadra on Pramodhoota Vaishakh Bright 10th Day. Abhimanya was born in the year Pramodhoota.

29. Draupadi had one son each from her 5 Pandava husbands. 30. The Khandava Forest was burnt down after Pramodhoota Shravana Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishtira was yrs. 58-10-15 days old. Mayasabha took yrs. 1-2-0 days for construction.

31.Panadavas entered Mayasabha on Prajopatthi Ashwayuja Bright 10th Day. Yudhisthira was years 60-0-5 days old.

32. Rule in Indraprastha for 16 years, upto Sarvajit Ashwayuja Bright 10th day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 76-0-5 days old.

33. Wrestling started between Bhima and Jarasandha on Sarvajit Kartika Bright 2nd Day. It continued for 14 days, and Jarasandha was killed on 14th evening.

34. The Rajasooya Yadnya began on Sarvadhari Chaitra Full Moon Day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 76-6-15 days old.

35. Dice plays : The two Dice plays were played between Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 3rd Day and 7th Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 76-10-2 days old.

So Pandavas ruled for a period of yrs. 36-6-20 days from Virodhikritu Maagha Bright 2nd Day to Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 7th Day.

36. Forest Life : Forest life started on Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 8th Day. Yudhisthira was years 76-10-18 days old. Demon Kimeera was killed on the 3rd Day, that is, Dark 10th Day. 12 years forest exile ended on Sarvari Shravan Dark 7th Day.

37. The 13th year of anonimity ended on the Plava Shravan Dark 7th Day.

38. Kichaka was killed on on Plava Ashadha Dark 8th Day at night. His brothers were killed the next day, Dark 9th Day.

39. Since these are lunar years, there were two Adhik Masas every 5 years, and in 13 years there were 5 Adhik Mases and 12 days. But these were merged in the lunar years as Adhik Mases. Tithiwayas and likewise, Bhishma and Yudhishthira followed this calculation as correct, but Duryodhana insisted on anonimity solar years, which was unacceptable in those days.

40. Since the period was over the previous day, Arjuna declared his identity. Arjuna was carrying his bow Gandiva for 30 years from Pramodoota to Sarvari, and he told Uttara that he will carry it for another 35 years. The next day, on Dark 9th Day, Pandavas declared their identity. Yudhishthira was yrs. 89-10-9 days old.

41. Pandavas stayed in Upaplavyam for yr. 1-2-17 days. During these days, consultations, marraige between Uttara and Abhimanyu in Shubhakrit Jyeshta month, marshalling of armies, Peace talks by Draupadi's Purohit and Sanjaya took place.
In Aswayuja month, there were lunar and solar eclipses, portending evil and destruction.

42. Shri Krishna's Peace talks : Shri Krishna started on Shubhakrit Kartik Bright 2nd Day, in Revati Star, reached Hastinapur on the 13th Day, and held peace talks upto Dark 8th Day. On his last day, His Vishwaroopa was shown. Since talks failed, he started on his return journey the same day in Pushyami Star, told Karna that in 7 days, on New Moon Day in Jyeshta Star, all should assemble at Kurukshetra for the Great War, and returned to Upaplavya.

43. So Pandavas stayed in Upaplavya for yr. 1-2-17 + 15 days = yr. 1-3-2 days.

44. Both the Pandava and Kaurava armies marched to Kurukshetra on the New Moon Day. The period from Margashirsha Bright 2nd Day to 12th Day, was taken up by installation of tents, arranging Army rehearsals etc. etc.

45. The Great Mahabharat War started on Shubhakrit Margashirsha Bright 13/14th Day, Tuesday in Bharani Star. Yudhishthir was yrs. 91-2-9 days old. Just the previous day 11/12th Day, when armies were rehearsing Vyuhas, Arjuna fell into a gloom, occasioning Lord Krishna's famous BhagavadGeeta discourse with Arjuna.

46. Bhishma's Fall : On Margashirsha Dark 7th Day.

47. Abhimanyu's Death : Abhimanyu was killed on Margashirsha Dark 10th Day. He was aged 32 years (From Pramodoota to Shubhakrit). Since marraige was in Jyeshta month, he led only 6 month's family life, and Uttra was 6 months pregnant.

48. Saindhava's Death : Saindhava was killed on Margashirsha Dark 11th Day.
The battle was continued even into the night.
Drona was killed on Margashirsha Dark 12th Day at noon.

49. Karna's Death : Karna was killed on Margashirsha Dark 14th Day.
Salya was killed on Margashirsha New Moon Day at noon.

50. Duryodhana's Fall : He fell on Margashirsha New Moon Day/Pausha Bright 1st Day in the evening. He died the next morning on the Bright 1st Day.

51. Balrama started on pilgrimage on Kartik Dark 5th Day, in Pushyami Star. So, date-wise and star-wise also, pilgrimage took 42 days.

52. Ashwatthama murdered Pandava's sons during the same night on Margashirsha New Moon/Pausha Bright 1st Day night, and conveyed the dire information to the dying Duryodhana on Bright 1st Day early morning. Defeat of Ashwatthama : on Pausha Bright 1st Day.

53. Pandava Armies 7 Akshouhinis = 551,33,83,260
Kaurava Armies 11 Akshouhinis = 866,38,87,960
Total 18 Akshouhinis = 1417,72,71,240
Except Pandavas, Krishna. Satyaki and Yuyutsu on Pandavas side, and Kripa, Krutavarma and Ashwatthama on Kaurava's side, all were killed. Yudhishthira told Dhritarashtra that Great Warriors (MahaRathis) killed in the War, were more than 94 crores.

No clear details are available in the Epic, how Pandava Warriors disposed off kaurava armies. Abhimanyu on the 13th Day, killed more than 0.50 Akshouhini army, and Arjuna on the 14th Day killed 5 Akshouhinis.

54. Attacking Pandavas side,
Bhishma killed nearly 1.27 Akshouhinis = 100,00,00,000
Drona killed nearly 1.00 Akshouhinis = 78,76,26,180
Karna killed nearly 2.37 Akshouhinis = 186,28,78,540
Salya killed nearly 0.29 Akshouhinis = 22,60,46,000
Ashwatthama killed nearly 0.09 Akshouhinis = 7,20,24,400
Rest of the warriors 1.98 Akshouhinis = 156,48,08,140

Warrior-Warrior fights
TOTAL 7.00 Akshouhinis = 551,33,83,260

55. Yudhishthira's age was yrs. 91-2-27. Pandavas observed 12 days mourning from Pausha Bright 1st Day to 13th Day. Mass cremations were done on the 14th day, and the same evening, Pandavas proceeded to Hastinapur.

56. Yudhishthira was crowned on Shubhakrit Pausha Full Moon Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 91-3-10 days old.

57. Pandavas called on Bhishma (who was prostrate on a bed of arrows) on Pausha Dark 2nd Day, stayed upto 8th Day, listened to Bhishma's advisory discourse, returned to Hastinapur, stayed for 15 days and went to Bhishma again on Maagha Bright 8th day. On 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th day, Bhishma was in meditation. He renounced his mortal coil on 12th day. Hence 8th-12th of Pausha Dark Fortnight is called Bhishma Panchakam. Bhishma fell prostrate on Margashirsha Dark 7th Day. From 8th Day to Maagha Bright 11th Day, 48 days elapsed. "AshtaPanchasatam ratryassayana syasyama gatha" that is, Bhishma said that he completed 58 (10+48) days on the battlefield. " Sarashu nisitagresu yatha varsha satam tatha" meaning, by lying on pointed arrows, it appeared although it was 100 years. " Tribhaga seshah pakshyam suklo" meaning, it is Bright Fortnight, and still 3 parts remained. ( By dividing Bright Fortnight into 10 parts, 7 parts = 10.5 days or 11th day is in progress, and still 3 parts = 4.5 days remained upto Full Moon Day.)

58. Ashwamedha Yadnya began on Shobhakrit Maagha Bright 12th Day. Just earlier, Parikshit was born to Uttara as posthumas premature, still born male baby at 8/9 months, but was revived by Krishna.

15 years later, in Kartik month, Dhritarashtra left for the forest. 3 years later, Pandavas went to the forest to see Dhritarashtra etc. Vidura's death.
After 1 month, Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti got killed in a forest fire.

59. Thirty six years after the Great War, that is in Bahudhanya year, evil omens in Dwaraka were observed. Samba became pregnant and a iron rod (musalam) was born.

60. Yudhishthir ruled for yrs. 36-2-15 days. From Shubhakrit Pushya Full Moon Day to Bahudhanya Pushya Full Moon Day, it was 36 years and adding 0-2-15 days, it was Pramadi Bright 1st Day, when Kailyug started and Shri Krishna finished his Avatar. (B.C 3102-2-20 at 2-27-30 P.M)

61. Seven days later, on Bright 7th Day, Dwarka city was submerged by the Ocean. Saptarishis were in Magha Star, 75 years prior to Kaliyug and remained there for 25 years after Kaliyug.

Yudhishthir Shaka started from his coronation day that is, Krishna finished his Avatar in Yudhishthir Shaka yrs. 36-2-15.

62. Pandavas started for their Final End after 0-6-11 days, that is, on Pramadi Ashwayuja Bright 12th Day. Yudhishthir was aged yrs. 128-0-6. Parikshit, 36 years old, was coronated on the same day at Hastinapur.

63. Swargaarohanam is not clearly stated in the Epic. It may be 26 years afterwards. Sage Veda Vyas dictated the Great Epic to Ganapati only after Swargarohanam of the Pandavas, that is, after 26 years of Kaliyug.

64. Parikshit ruled for 60 years, coronated his 25 year old son Janamejaya, and died.

65. So, Bhagavatha was written by Sage Veda Vyas soon after Mahabharat was over, and before the 60th year of the Kaliyuga.

66. In Dwapara Yuga, human beings lived upto 400 years. There are four stages in life - Balya, Youvana, Koumara and Vriddhapyam. In Dwaparyug, Balya stage was upto 40 years, Youvana stage upto 120 years, and later Koumara and Vriddhapyam stages. But now in the Kaliyuga, Balya stage is upto 15 years, Youvana upto 45 years, Koumara upto 60 years and Vriddhapyam beyond 60 years.
All this data has been gathered from the Great Sanskrit Epic Mahabharat and commentaries on it by various authors.

Mahabharat: An Astronomical Proof from the Bhagavat Puraan
By Dr. Satya Prakash Saraswat

Reproduced without permission.
Determination of the exact period of the Mahabharat, the greatest epic of the Sanskrit language and treasure of Hindu tradition, has been one of the most difficult and controversial problems of religious history since the eighteenth century. Religious historians outside India have consistently argued that the events described in the Mahabharat and the Purans are completely mythical and have virtually no relationship to history. On the other hand, Indian scholars have argued, equally vehemently, that the stories of Hindu scriptures are irrefutable facts of history. It has been pointed out that nothing comparable to the genealogy of the Bible exists in the entire collection of Hindu sacred literature. All the generations of mankind between Abraham and Jesus Christ are clearly identified in the Bible while the purans merely mention that 1115 years will pass between the reign of Nanda, the first famous king of Kali-age (kaliyuga), and Parikshit, the last Pandava king of the Dvapar age (Dvaparyuga). Detractors of ancient Indian tradition have used this argument for centuries as the most powerful weapon in their intellectual arsenal to attack the foundations of the rich and varied tradition of Sanskrit epics and Purans which represents a perfect socio-cosmic harmony of history and mythology.

Fortunately, many works of the Vedic and Puranic tradition contain a sufficient number of clues in the form of astronomical observations which can be used to determine the approximate date of Mahabharata and thus establish the historical authenticity of the events described in this great epic. Notable among these works are the Parashar Sanghita, the Bhagvat Puran, Shakalya Sanghita, and the Mahabharat itself. Aryabhatta, one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers of India in the fifth century AD, examined the astronomical evidence described in the Mahabharata in his great work known as the "Aryabhattiya". According to the positions of the planets recorded in the Mahabharata, its approximate date was calculated by Aryabhatta to be 3100 BC implying that the great war described in the Mahabharata was fought approximately 5000 years ago, as most Hindus have always believed.

A number of British scholars of the 19th century, especially Friedrich Max Muller, tried to interpret this astronomical evidence to prove that the observations recorded in Hindu scriptures are imaginary. As an amateur astronomer, I propose to examine the astronomical evidence presented in the Bhagvat Puran and Max Muller's criticism of this evidence in light of the advances made in astronomy in the past fifty years. Max Muller, in the preface to his translation of the Rigveda, examines the astronomical observations described in the Bhagvat Puran and concludes that these observations are "imaginary", apparently because they did not agree with the prevalent views of the European, primarily British, Indologists of the nineteenth century about the time of the Mahabharata. These astronomical observations about the positions of the Saptarishis (Ursa Major) and some predictions based on their movement are contained in the second chapter of the twelfth Canto of the Bhagvat Puran. In relating the story of lord Krishna's life to king Parikshat, the granson of Arjuna, Rishi Shukdeva explains:

saptarshinam tu yau purvau drshyete uditau divi |
tayostumadhye nakshatram drshyate yat samam nishi || 27 ||

tenaita rishayo yuktastishthantyabdashanta nranama |
tey tvadiye dwijaha kale adhuna charshita maghaha || 28 ||

"When the Saptarshis (the constellation of Ursa Major) rise in the east, only two stars are visible at first. In the middle of two stars, one of the lunar mansions (nakashatra) appears on the opposite side of the sky. The seven rishis stay with this lunar mansion (asterism) for hundred earth years. Parikshit! from the time of your birth to the present time, they have been positioned with the 'Magha' lunar mansion".

According to a similar observation, recorded in the Shakalya Sanghita, "their (Saptarshis') movement is eight minutes of the arc a year .... and moving in the north into different positions, the rishis employ 2700 years in revolving through the assemblage of twenty seven lunar mansions (translated by Max Muller)". Max Muller accepts the interpretation of the shlokas in the Bhagvat Puran, especially the phrase "the lunar mansion in the middle of these two stars (tayostumadhye Nakshatram)," as the extension of the line connecting the two stars away from the pole star. With this interpretation, the movement of the Saptarshis does indeed become imaginary, as noted by Max Muller, "Now although this movement of the seven Rishis is but imaginary, it was used for chronological purposes." Other interpretations are, however, possible if the recorded positions of the seven rishis are examined without the predictions made in the Bhagvat Puran about the direction of their movement. This modified interpretation can reinforce the conclusions drawn by Aryabhatta from his calculations about the date of Mahabharata.

A more plausible interpretation of the observations described in the Bhagvat puran, especially the phrase "the lunar mansion in the middle of the two stars (tayostumadhye nakshatram)" is that "the perpendicular line drawn from the midpoint of these two stars towards the ecliptic" intersects at a certain lunar mansion (nakshatra), when extended towards the ecliptic. It is entirely likely that ancient Indian mathematicians deliberately avoided the use of the term "perpendicular" in describing the astronomical observation, for the simplicity of interpretation. A sky map in exhibit 1 depicts the approximate position of the Saptarshis in relations to the zodiacal constellations visible in the evening sky in the month of August 1990 from North America. The positions of the astronomical objects shown in this exhibit are in general agreement with the positions of stars in the sky maps published in the August 1990 issue of the "Astronomy" magazine. These observations, made from Boston area which has a latitude of approximately 43 degrees North, can be easily verified without a telescope or binoculars since most of these stars and constellations are clearly visible with naked eye in the evening summer sky in the northern hemishere. As compared to northern India from where the observations of the Bhagvat Puran were made, this lattitude is too far north and from Boston the Saptarshis appear to be circling the pole star during the night instead of rising in the morning. On an early morning in the month of August, the two stars of the Saptarshis highest over the horizon from Boston are the so called pointers.

Exhibit 1
Approximate Positions of the Saptarshis (August 1990)
. .
. .
. .
. * Dubhe .
. . .
. Merak * . * .
. . . (Ursa Major) .
.Pisces . * . .
.. . * Saptarshis .
. . * * . .
. . Pole * . *Swati .
. . Star Vishakha .
Ecliptic---------->. * . * . .
. Aquarius * . . . West
East . . Anuradha . .
. . * . .
. . . * Jyeshtha.
. Capricornus . Saturn . * * .
. * * Scorpius
. Sagittarius Mula * .
. * * .
. .
. .
. .
. .


The line connecting these stars intersects at the north pole when extended northwards. In most parts of India, except the extreme northern parts of Kashmir, these stars will appear to be rising in early morning. Arabian astronomers, who transmitted most of the knowledge of astronomy in the middle ages to Europe, named these stars Merak and Dubhe. Arabian mathematicians and astronomers had, as a well established fact of history, acquired most of their knowledge of algebra, arithmatic and astronomy from India. In 1990, as shown in the map in exhibit 1, this line intersects between the zodiacal constellations of Libra and Scorpios, very close to the brightest star in the constellation of Libra. The entire constellation of scorpios has a clearly identifiable shape and the two bright stars of Libra are also clearly visible with naked eye. According to the Indian system of naming the twenty seven stations through which the moon passes each night during its periodic movement, the brightest star of Libra is known as the "Vishakha" nakshatra. The Saptarshis are thus positioned in the "Vishakha" nakshatra in the present century.
Between the current location of the Saptarishis and the position mentioned in the Bhagvat, i.e., the Magha nakshatra, twenty three lunar mansions intervene, from Anuradha to Ashlesha, if the direction of movement opposite to the commonly accepted interpretation of the predictions made in the Bhagvat is followed (Exhibit 2). This direction of movement is equally likely since no records are available to establish the exact direction the saptarshis have historically followed.

Exhibit 2: Direction of the movement of the Saptarishis
Position of the Saptarshis at the time of the Bhagvat Puran

Current position of the Saptarshis

1. Pushya
27 1 2 2. Punarvasu
26 3 3. Ardra
25 * . . 4 4. Mrigashisa
. . 5 5. Rohni 24 . . 6 6. Krittika 23 . . 7 7. Bharni 22 . . 8 8. Ashvini
. V 9. Revati 21 V Proposed 9 10. Uttara Bhadrapada
Max Mullers's direction 10 11. Purva Bhadrapada 20 Direction 11 12. Shatabhisha 19 ** 12 13. Dhanishtha 18 13 14. Shravana
17 14 15. Uttara Ashadha
16 15 16. Purva Ashadha 17. Mula 18. Jyestha 19. Anuradha 20. Vishakha 21. Swati 22. Chitra 23. Hasta 24. Uttara Phalguni 25. Purva Phalguni 26. Magha 27. Ashlesha

The relative movement of Saptarshis through twenty three mansions implies that the observations described in the Bhagvat Puran must have been made either around 300 BC, or 3000 BC, since the positions of the Saptrshis repeat every 2700 years. The possibility of these observations in 300 BC can be completely ruled out because the period around 300 BC is a matter of recorded history. The historical events of the fourth century BC are recorded in sufficient detail by many Indian as well as Greek historians. Alexander, the Great, invaded a part of India during this period, when Chandragupta Morya was the ruler of Pataliputra, and these events are described by Plutarch in "Parallel Lives" with meticulous detail. The stories of Bhagvat were as prevalent in India in the fourth century BC as they are now and most of the Purans are considered older than 300 BC. For example, according to the Encyclodepia Britannica, Sir William Jones, the most famous Indologist of the 18th century, estimates the time of the Bhavishya Puran to be 550 BC in his tranlation of an article describing the game of chess in this Puran. Therefore, the most logical conclusion that can be drawn from these descriptions is that the astronomical observations described in the Bhagvat Puran were probably made approximately 5000 years ago, an entire cycle of Saptarshis before the reign of Chandragupta. The position of the Saptarshis in Magha during the time of Mahabharata is thus in complete agreement with the estimate of approximately 3000 BC given by Aryabhatta. It is extremely likely that Max Muller's conclusions about astronomy of the Bhagvat Puran being "imaginary" were based on a questionable interpretation of the direction of movement of the Saptarshis.

An unavoidable question that arises from this modified interpretation is why have the conclusions of Max Muller remained so widely accepted for more than a hundred years? There are two possible reasons for it. First, most astronomers work with expensive telescopes in sophisticated observatories located primarily in advanced industrialized countries and are not familiar with the observations recorded in the Purans or Upanishads. And second, most "pundits" and religious scholars in India are more concerned with astrology rather than the practical aspects of astronomy. The theoretical and speculative inclination of Indian intellectual endeavor has been a major stumbling block in the discovery and interpretation of many mathematical, scientific and astronomical facts recorded in the sacred books of India. A largely unnoticed story from the history of early moslem incursions into India is extremely relevant to this argument. Alberuni, a famous Arabic scholar who accompanied Mahmud Ghazanvi on his seventh infamous compaigns across north India, once asked an average Indian pundit, well versed in mathematics and metaphysics, where the lunar mansion "Anuradha" was in the sky. The learned pundit showed total inability to associate any names mentioned in his almanac (Jantri) with the visible stars and constellations in the sky. There is certainly no dearth of learned scholars and pundits in India, but it appears that an average pundit does not have a great need or desire to understand the cosmic connection behind the religious ritual.
A third inescapable reason, perhaps far more important than the previous two, has also prevented a critical scrutiny of Max Muller's arguments. Our knowledge of astronomy was extremely limited at the time of Max Muller but in the past 100 years it has advanced by leaps and bounds with the availability of large optical and radio telescopes and dedicated scientists. There are now convincing answers available to the question why the Saptarshis change their positions. According to the New Atlas of the universe by Patrick Moore, five of the seven stars of the Saptarshis (the Plough of Ursa Major) are travelling through the space in the same direction while other two, Alkaid and Dubhe, are moving in opposite direction. Consequently, after a sufficiently long time the plough tends to lose its characterstic shape and the perpendicular line drawn from the midpoint of Merak and Dubhe crosses the ecliptic at different lunar mansions, changing 3.6 degress of arc in a century. There is still no scientific explanation of why every 2700 years this movement should repeat but a clue can be found in the work of Anthony Aveni, the noted author of a recent book titled "The Empires of Time: Calendars, Clocks and Cultures". According to this book, there is a widespread belief in many African and American Indian cultures that the entire solar system revolves in our galaxy (VV comment: also refer to Atharva. Kanda 14 and Yajurveda Chap 3 and 33), the Milky Way, around the brightest star in the Pleiades. The cluster of Pleiades, in the Taurus constellation, is known as the Seven Sisters or "Krittikas" in Hindu astronomy. The brightest star in the Pleiades is Alcyone and the sun completes one revolution around this star in approximately 3000 years. There are no astronomical maps available to verify this observation and no scientific computations can prove or disprove this theory easily but this widespread belief has made Pleiades one of the most sacred object in the sky in practically every country and culture. This periodic revolution could be the reason why the Saptarshis repeat the positions described in the Bhagvat Puran, every 2700 years.

Carl Segan, a renowned astronomer at Cornell University, who hosted the public television series "Cosmos" in 1985, pointed out that Hindus were the only ones who came anywhere close to correctly estimating the real age of the universe. Unlike many cultural traditions which treat science and religion as antithetical to each other, the Hindu tradition encourages the study of physics and metaphysics both for a comparative understanding of the true nature of the cosmic mystery surrounding and pervading the universe. The observations recorded in the Bhagvat Puran thus present a challenge to the modern astronomer to reestablish the connection betwen the diversity of what the scientists call "Phenomenon" and the underlying spiritual unity of what the renowned German philosopher Immanuel Kant called the "Noumenon".

The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War
By Dr.P.V.Vartak

The Mahabharat has excercised a continuous and pervasive influence on the Indian mind for milleniums. The Mahabharat, orginally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut, has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and has been set to a variety of interpretations. Dating back to "remote antiquity", it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses.

Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a matter of challenge and controversy for a century or two. European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently, the Mahabharat derived to be a fictitiou tale of a war fought between two rivalries. Starting from the so- called Aryan invasion into Bharat, the current Bharatiya chronology starts from the compilation of the Rigved in 1200 B.C., then come other Ved's, Mahaveer Jain is born, then Gautam Buddha lives around 585 B.C. and the rest follows. In the meantime, the Brahmanas, Samhi- tas, Puranas, etc. are written and the thought contained therein is well-absorbed among the Hindu minds. Where does the Ramayan and Mahabharat fit in ? Some say that the Ramayan follows Mahabharat and some opine otherwise. In all this anarchy of Indian histography, the date of the Mahabharat (the mythical story!) ranges between 1000 300 B.C. Saunskrut epics were academically attacked occasion- ally - an attempt to disprove the authencity of the annals noted therein. For example, the European Indologiest Maxmuller, tried the interpret the astronomical evidences to prove that the observations recorded in the Hindu scriptures are imaginary, probably because it did not match the prevelant views of European historians!

On the contrary, many Bharatiya scholars have vehemently maintained the actual occurance of the Mahabharat War. Astronomical and literary evidences or clues from the Pauranic and Vaidik texts have been deci- phered to provide a conclusive date for the Mahabharat War. The fifth century mathematician, Aryabhatta, calculated the date of the Mahabharat War to be approximately 3100 B.C. from the planetary posi- tions recorded in the Mahabharat. Prof. C.V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte had derived the date to be 3101 B.C. and Shri. Kota Venkatachalam reckoned it to be 3139 B.C. However, the astronomical data used by the above, and many other, scholars contained some errors as examined by a scho- lar from Pune, Dr. P.V. Vartak. Using astronomical references and variety of other sources, Dr. Vartak has derived the date of the ini- tiation of the Mahabharat War to be 16th October 5561 B.C. This pro- posed date has been examined by a few scholars and has been verfied. This may prove to be a break-through in deciding the chronology of the events in the history of Bharat (and probably the World).

In the following few posts, I have made an attempt to provide a glance at the proofs provided by Dr. Vartak in propounding the date of the very important landmark in the history of Bharat (World?), i.e., Mahabharat War. Only major points have been extracted from two sources: Dr.P.V. Vartak's Marathi book "Swayambhu" and "Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War" in English.

Some scholars rely on the various inscriptions found in the temples and elsewhere to fix the date of Mahabharat War. If there is no other alternative then this method is tolerable, otherwise it is not reli- able because all the known inscriptions are dated as far back as 400 AD. Those who prepared those inscriptions were not conversant with the scientific methods available now in the modern Science Age. So, why should we depend on the conjectures of the ancient people? Why not use scientific methodology to come to the conclusion ourselves? I will prefer the use of the modern scientific ways to fix the date of Mahabharat War rather than to rely on the Inscriptions which are vague and inconclusive. Let us examine two famous inscriptions always quoted by the scholars.

All the scholars have relied on this inscription found in the Jain Temple at Aihole prepared by one Chalukya King Pulakeshi. It says, according to scholars, that the temple was constructed in 30+3000+700+5 = 3735 years, after the Bharat War and 50+6+500 = 556 years of Shaka era in Kali era. Today Shaka era is 1910. Hence 1910- 556 = 1354 years ago the temple was constructed. Thus the year of inscribing this note is 634 AD. At this time 3735 years had passed from the Bharat War. So the date of the War comes to 3101 BC. This is also the date of Kali Yuga Commencement. Naturally, it is evident that relying on the beginning of Kaliyuga Era and holding that the War took place just before the commencement of Kaliyuga, this inscription is prepared. It is obvious from the Mahabharat that the War did not happen near about the beginning of Kaliyuga. (I have considered this problem fully at a later stage.) If we can see that the inscription is prepared by relying on some false assumption, we have to neglect it because it has no value as an evidence. Moreover the interpretation done by the scholars is doubtful because they have not considered the clauses separately and they held Bharat War and Kali Era as one and the same.

The verse inscribed is :
Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaditaha | Saptabda Shatayukteshu Gateshwabdeshu Panchasu | Panchashatasu Kalaukale Shatasu Panchashatsu cha | Samatsu Samatitasu Shakaanamapi Bhoobhujaam ||

I would like to interprete the verse considering the clauses of the verse. It says

"3030 years from the Bharat War" in the first line, ( Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaaditaha) where the first clause oF the sentence ends. in the second line, the second clause starts and runs upto the middle of the third line thus ( Saptabda.....Kalaukale) This means 700+5+50 = 755 years passed in the Kali Era. The remaining third clause is ( Shatasu ) Here the verse does not specifically say the Shalivahan Shaka but Scholars have taken granted that it is Shalivahan Shaka without any base or reasoning. The verse may have mentioned some other Shaka kings from ancient era. So we we neglect the doubtful part of the Shaka counting which is useless and adhere to the Kali era expressly mentioned. It is clear from the former portion of the verse that 3030 years passed from the Bharat War and 755 years passed from Kali Era. Kali Era started from 3101 BC. 755 years have passed so 3101-755 = 2346 BC is the year when 3030 years had passed from the Bharat War. So 2346+3030 = 5376 BC appears to be the date of Bharat War.

This inscription is of 5th century AD and scholars hold that it throws light on the time of Mahabharat War. It states. that Saptarshis were in Uttara at the time of this inscription. Scholars hold that Saptarshis were in Magha at the time of Yudhishthira because Varahmihira has stated so in Brihat-Samhita. Scholars also hold that Yudhishthira's time is 3137 BC. Saptarshis stay in one Nakshtra for 100 years, and there are 27 Nakshatras. Hence Saptarshis would be again in Magha 2700 years later during 4th century BC. From here if we count upto 5th century AD there fall eight Nakshatras. Hence in the 5th century AD, Saptarshis should be in Anuradha and not Uttara. From Anuradha to Uttara Ashadha there is adifference of five Naksha- tras, while from Anuradha to Uttara Phalguni there is a difference of six Nakshatras. So it is quite evident that at the time of Yudhisthira Saptarshis were not in Magha as held by the scholars. Here I have shown a mistake of five to six hundreds of years. More- over, there are three 'Uttaras' and the inscription has not stated specifically which Uttara it denotes. Thus this source is unreliable and should be rejected.

I have considered Saptarshi Reckoning in details at a later stage on page 11. While going to examine the sources scientifically, I shall give the honour of the first place to Astronomy. One may question that how far Astronomy was advanced in those olden days? I say affir- matively that Astronomy was far advanced in the ancient times, and the ancient Indian sages had perfected the science of time measure- ment relying on Astronomy.

1. "The Greek Ambassodor Magasthenis has recorded that 138 generations have passed between Krishna and Chandragupta Maurya. Many scholars have taken this evidence, but taking only 20 years per generation they fixed the date of Krishna as 2760 years before Chandragupta. But this is wrong because the record is not of ordinary people to take 20 years per generation. In the matter of general public, one says that when a son is born a new generation starts. But in the case of kings, the name is included in the list of Royal Dynasty only after his corona- tion to the throne. Hence, one cannot allot 20 years to one king. We have to find out the average per king by calculating on various Indian Dynasties. I have considered 60 kings from various dynasties and calculated the average of each king as 35 years. Here is a list of some of important kings with the no. of years ruling.
Chandragupta Mourya 330-298 B.C. 32 years.
Bindusar 298-273 B.C. 25 years.
Ashok 273-232 B.C. 41 years.
Pushyamitra Shunga 190-149 B.C. 41 years.
Chandragupta Gupta 308-330 A.D. 22 years.
Samudragupta 330-375 A.D. 45 years.
Vikramaditya 375-414 A.D. 39 years.
Kumargupta 414-455 A.D. 41 years.
Harsha 606-647 A.D. 41 years.
327 years.

The average is 327/9 = 36.3 years.

Multiplying 138 generations by 35 years we get 4830 years before Chan- dragupta Mourya. Adding Chandrgupta's date 320 B.C. to 4830 we get 5150 B.C. as the date of Lord Krishna.

2. Megasthenis, according to Arian, has written that between Sandro- cotus to Dianisaum 153 generations and 6042 years passed. From this data, we get the average of 39.5 years per king. From this we can cal- culate 5451 years for 138 generations. So Krishna must have been around 5771 B.C.

3. Pliny gives 154 generations and 6451 years between Bacchus and Alexander. This Bacchus may be the famous Bakasura who was killed by Bhimasena. This period comes to about 6771 years B.C.

Thus Mahabharat period ranges from 5000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.

a) Bhagwat gives 28 Kaurava kings from Parikshit to Kshemaka. "From Kshemaka, the Pandava Dynasty will end in Kaliyug, and Magadha Dynasty will start." [Bhagwad 9-22-45]. This implies that the Pandava kings ruled before the advent of Kaliyug, i.e., before 3101 B.C and Magadha dynasty will not super-impose the Pandava Dynasty.

b) Further it is stated in Bhagwat that after 28 Kaurava kings, Magadha Dynasty would rule and 22 Magadha kings would govern for 1000 years. Here it is given a average of 1000 years for 22 kings. It can be found that the 28 Kaurava kings would have ruled for 1273 years and then Magadha Dynasty started with King Sahadeva, whose son was Somapi. On the other hand, Maghasandhi was the son of Sahadeva and the grand-son of Jarasandha [Ashwamedh-82]. many scholars have neglected this fact and have assumed that this Sahadeva fought in the Mahabharat War and was the son of Jarasandha.

c) Ripunjaya is the last king in the list of 22 Magadhas. But Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 mentions that Puranjaya will be the last king who will be killed by his minister Shunak. It is to be noted that there is no men- tion of the kings between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. People have wrongly taken the two names as that of one and the same person, without any evidence.

d) Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 state that Shunak would coronate his son Pradyota as the King and later five Kings would rule for 138 years. After this Pradotya Dynasty, Shishunga Kings, 10 in number, would rule for 360 years. Thereafter 9 Nandas would rule for 100 years. Nanda would be destroyed by a Brahmin and Chandragupta would be enthroned. We know that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne in 324 B.C. So we can thus calculate backwards:
9 Nandas 100 years
10 Shishungas 360 years
5 Pradotyas 138 years
22 Magadhas 1000 years
28 Kauravas 1273 years
----------- ----------
74 Kings 2871 years

We find here only 74 kings, but Megasthenes tells us about 138 kings. So 138-74=64 kings are missing. These may be from the period between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. Thus calculating from the data of 74 kings who ruled for 2871 years, we get a period of 2496 years for 64 kings. Adding the two we get 5367 years for 138 kings. This is preceding Chandragupta's time, who came to throne in 324 B.C. Hence, 324+5367 = 5691 B.C. is the approximate date of Parikshit.

Scholars accept the date of the Mahabharat War to be 3100 B.C. which also happens to the initiation of the Yudhisthira Era. But this Era, is mentioned nowhere in the Mahabharat text itself! At the time of Aswamedha of Yudhisthira, Vyas has given descriptions in minute detail like collection of "Sruva", formation of wells and lakes, but never has written even a word about, such an important event, as the begin- ning of the Yudhisthira Era.

Mahabharat also never mentions anything about the beginning of the Kaliyug, even at the time of Krishna's death. Mahabharat Adiparva 2.13 states that the War took place in the interphase ("Antare") of the Dwapaar and Kali Eras. Thus it makes it clear that the evening of the Dwapaar has not yet ended and the Kaliyug had not started when the War took place.

Bhagwat states at 12.2.27-32 that Saptarishis stay 100 years in one Nakshatra. At the time of King Parikshit, the Saptarishis were in Magha. When they proceeded to Purvashadha, Kali would start. There are 11 Nakshatras from Magha to Purvashadha. Hence it is seen that Shukacharya tells Parikshit that after 1100 years Kaliyug will start. Kaliyug started at 3101 B.C. Hence 3101 + 1100 = 4201 B.C. is the date of Parikshit.

Other references from Shrimad Bhagwat points quite closely to the same year as above.
But who is this Parikshit ? Is he the son of Abhimanyu ? No. A minute observation of this reveals that the above is not Abhimanyu's son because Bhagwat is told to this Parikshit. On the other hand, Mahabharat is told to Janamejaya. In the Mahabharat, Parikshit's death has been recorded. Hence it is evident that Mahabharat was written and published after the death of Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu. Bhagwat is written after Mahabharat according to the Bhagawat itself. This Bhagwat is told to some Parikshit. How can this Parikshit be the son of Abhimanyu who died before the Mahabharat writing ? So this Parikshit appears to be somebody else than Abhimanyu's son.

Mahabharat mentions the ancient tradition as 'Shravanadini Nakshatrani',i.e., Shravan Nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra- cycle (Adi-71/34 and Ashvamedh 44/2) Vishwamitra started counting the Nakshatras from Shravan when.he created 'Prati Srushti'. He was angry with the old customs. So he started some new customs. Before Vishvamitra's time Nakshatras were counted from the one which was occupied by the sun on the Vernal Equinox. Vishvamitra changed this fashion and used diagonally opposite point i.e. Autumnal Equinox to list the Nakshtras. He gave first place to Shravan which was at the Autumnal Equinox then. The period of Shravan Nakshatra on autumnal equinox is from 6920 to 7880 years B.C. This was Vishvamitra's period at the end of Treta yuga. Mahabharat War took place at the end of Dwapar yuga. Subtracting the span of Dwapar Yuga of 2400 years we get 7880 - 2400 = 5480 B.C. as the date of Mahabharat War.

Some scholars rely on the horoscope of Lord Krishna to calculate his birth-date so as to establish the period of Mahabharat. But they do not realise that the horoscope is a forged one, prepared many thousand years after Krishna's death. Mahabharat Bhagvat and Vishnu purana have not given the planet positions at the time of Krishna's birth. It is well-known and is recorded in many scriptures that Krishna was born in a jail, then who could have casted his horoscope? Moreover Krishna was not a prince so nobody would have casted his horoscope. Hence it is not wise to rely on the horoscope. It is prepared recently by consid- ering the charateristics of Krishna and so is useless to fix the birth-date.

Mr. G.S. Sampath Iyengar and Mr. G.S. Sheshagiri have fixed the birth-date of Krishna as 27th July 3112 BC. 'The horoscope shows Lagna and Moon 52 deg. 15' Rohini, Jupiter 91 deg. 16' Punarvasu, Sun 148 deg. 15' Uttara Phalguni, Mercury 172 deg. 35' Hasta, Venus 180 deg. 15' Chitra, Saturn 209 deg. .57' Vishakha, Mars 270 deg. 1' Uttara Ashadha Rahu, 160 deg. 1'.

At present on 27th July 1979 the Sun was at 99 deg. 57', while at Krishna's birth, according to their opinion, the sun was at 148 deg. 15'. The difference is 48 deg. 18'. This shows that the Sun has receded back by 48 deg. 18' due to the precession at the rate of 72 years per degree. multiplying 48 deg. 18' by 72 we get 3456 years. This shows that Krishna was born 3456 years ago or substracting 1979 from it we can say that Krishna was born during 1477 BC. Thus 3112 BC is found to be wrong. We cannot accept such a wrong date derived from a manipulated borscope. (This horoscope is printed in "The Age of Bharat War" on page 241-Publisher, Motilal Banarasidas 1979).

In 1971, when I hinted at the date of Mahabharat war as 5500 years BC, archeaologists frowned at me saying it as impossible because no culture was found in India dating so much back. But now evidences are pouring in Archeaology itself showing cultures in India upto 30000 to 40000 years BC. Padmashri Late Mr. V.S. Wakankar has dated the paint- ings in the caves of Bhimbetaka of Madhya Pradesh to about 40000 BC.

Recently Dr. S.B. Rao, Emeritus Scientist of the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, has discovered under the sea, Dwaraka and dated it as between 5000 to 6000 BC. This news has been published by all the leading newspapers on 22th October 1988.

Motilal Banarasidas News Letter October 1988 gives a news on page 6 under the heading "50,000 year old Relics" as follows:

Spectacular culture and physical relics dating back to 50,000 years BC have been excavated from the Central Narmada Valley in Madhya Pradesh. A team of Anthropological survey of India recently con- ducted the excavation. It explored sites in two districts Sebore and Hoshangabad.

In my book "Vastava Ramayan" I have shown the presence of culture in India as far back as 72000 years B.C. This recent news points to that ancient period. I am sure after some time Arecheaology may get evi- dence to show the presence of culture in India 72000 BC.

In Vastava Ramayan I have shown that Bali, the demon king went to south America during 17000 BC when the vernal equinox was at Moola Nakshatra. MLBD News letter Oct. 1988 gives a news thus :-"Dravidians in America" - According to a press report the Brazillian nuclear phy- sicist and researcher Arysio Nunes dos santos holds that the Dravidians of South India reached America much before Christopher Columbus.
Mr. Nunes dos Santos, of the' Federal University of Minas Gerais maintains that the Dravidians colonised a vast South American region 11000 years before the Europians reached the new world. Vestiges of the Dravidian presence in America, he says, include the strange phonetics of Gourani, Paraguay's national language. Moreover Bananas, Pine Apple, Cocunut and Cotton, all grown in India could have been taken to America by those navigators.


Harivansh (Vishnu Purana A. 5) states that when Nanda carried Krishna to Gokul on Shravan Vadya Navami day, there was dry cow-dung spread all over the ground and trees were cut down. The presence of Dry Cowdung all over in Gokul indicates the presence of Summer in the month of Shravan. Trees are usually cut down in Summer to be used as fuel in the rainy season. The seasons move one month backwards in two thousand years. Today the rainy season starts in Jeshtha but two thousand years ago, at the time of KaIidas, rainy season used to start in Ashadha. At the time of Krishna's birth the Summer was in the month of Shravan while today it is in Vaishakha. Thus the summer is shifted by four months, hence Krishna's period comes to 4x2000 = 8000 years ago approximately. This means about 6000 years B.C., the same period we have seen above.

At the time of Mahabharat, the Vernal Equinox was at Punarvasu. Next to Punarvasu is Pushya Nakshtra. Vyas used "Pushyadi Ganana" for his Sayan method, and called Nirayan Pushya as Sayan Ashvini. He shifted the names of further Sayan Nakshtras accordingly. At that time Winter Solstice was on Revati, so Vyas gave the next Nakshatra Ashvini the first palee in the Nirayan list of Nakshatras. Thus he used Ashvinyadi Ganana for the Nirayan method. Using at times Sayan names and at times Nirayan names of the Nakshatras, Vyas prepared the riddles. By the clue that Nirayan Pushya means Sayan Ashvini, it is seen that Nirayan names of Nakshatras are eight Nakshatras ahead of the Sayan names Thus the Saturn in Nirayan Purva, and Sayan Rohini, Jupiter was in Nirayan Shravan, and Sayan Swati (near Vishakha), while the Mars was in Nirayan Anuradha, and Sayan Magha, Rahu was between Chitra and Swati, by Sayan way means it was in Nirayana. Uttara Ashadha (8 Nakshtras ahead). From these positions of the major planets we can calculated the exact date. My procedure is as follows:

I found out that on 5th May 1950, the Saturn was in Purva Phalguni. From 1950 I deducted 29.45 years to get the year 1920 when the Saturn was again in Purva. In this way I prepared a vertical column of the years when the Saturn was in Purva. Similarly, I prepared vertical columns of the years when the Jupiter was in Shravan and Rahu in Uttara Ashadha. Then I searched in horizontally to find out the year common in all the three columns. It was 5561-62 B.C. when all the three great planets were at the required places. Then I proceded for the detailed calculations.
Bhisma expired at the onset of Uttarayan i.e. on 22nd December. This is a fixed point according to the modern Scientific Calendar. He was on the arrow-bed for 58 nights and he had fought for ten days. Hence 68 days earlier than 22nd December the War had started. This shows that the War started on 16th October. We have to calculate the plane- tary positions of 16th October 5561 B.C.

Encyclopedia of Astronomy by Larousse states that one rotation of Saturn takes 26 years and 166 days. One year means 365.25 days. So the Saturn's round takes 29.4544832 years.

5th May 1950, Saturn conjugated with Purva. We have to see its posi- tion in 5561 years B.C. 5561+1950 = 7511 years. 7511 divided by 29.4544832 gives 255.00362 rounds. This means that Saturn completed 255 rounds and has gone ahead by 0.00362 or 1.3 degrees. Hence Saturn was in conjugation with Purva on 5th May 5561 B.C. On 16th October' 5562nd B.C. i.e. 164 days later it must have travelled (0.0334597 degrees (daily pace) multiplied by 164 days =) 5.487 degrees. So Saturn was at 141 degrees or in Purva Nakshatra.

In October 1962, Saturn was at 281 dgrs. 1962 + 5561 = 7523 years. 7523 devided by 29.4544832 gives 255.41103 turns. After completing 255 full turns, Saturn has gone back by 0.411003 turn i.e. 148 dgrs. 281-148= 133 degrs. This was the position of Saturn in Purva.

Calculating from 1931 or 1989 also Saturn appears at 141 dgrs. in Purva. Thus on 16
th of October 5562nd B.C. Saturn was in Purva as told by Vyas in Mahabharat.

Rahu takes 18.5992 years per rotation. It was at 132 dgrs. on 16th Oct. 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540, divided by 18.5992 gives 405.39378 turns. 0.39378 turns means 141.7 dgrs. Rahu always goes in reverse direction. We have to go in the past, so adding 141.7 to orginal 132 we get 273 dgrs. This is Uttarashadha where Rahu was situated (by Nirayan method).

Calculations from 1989, 1962 and 1893 confirm Rahu in Uttara Ashadha.

Jupiter takes 11.863013 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, it was at 129 dgrs. 1979+5561 = 7540. 7540 divided by 1.863013 gives 635.58892 turns. 0.58892 turn means 212 dgrs. So Jupiter was 212 dgrs behind the orginal position. 129 - 212 = -83. -83 means 360 - 83 = 277 degree 277 dgrs is the position of the star of Shravan. So Jupiter was in conjugation with Shravan. The span of Shravan is 280 deg. to 293 deg.

Calculations from 1989, 1932 and 1977 show Jupiter in 285 and 281 degrees or in the zone of Shravan. This confirms the position told by Vyas.

Mars takes 1.88089 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, Mars was at 108 dgrs. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 yrs. 7540 divided by 1.88089 gives 4008.7405 turns. 0.7405 turns means 266 dgrs., Mars was 266 dgrs behind the original position of 108 deg. 108 - 266 = 158. 360 - 158 = 202 deg. This is just beyond the star of Vishakha which is at 200 dgrs. Though in Vishakha-zone Mars has crossed the Star of Vishakha and intends to go in Anuradha, so the description of Vyas as "Anurad- ham Prarthayate" that it requests or appeals Anuradha, appears to be correct.

Calculations from 1962 and 1900 show Mars at 206 and' 208 dgrs and therefore though in Vishakha, it can be called as appealing Anuradha "Anuradham Prarthayate". Thus it is seen that Vyas has used tricky but correct terms. He has not written any false statement because he was the Truth-abiding Sage.

Here an expert may raise a question whether I have used Heliocentric method or Geocentric method. I make it clear here that I have used the Heliocentric method that means I have considered the rotations of planets around the Sun. But after fixing the position of the planet around the Sun I have also seen where that planet will be seen from the earth.

I would like the scholars to consider one more point here. When I say that an insect is sitting near one o' clock position on your watch or clock, one may think that the insect is between 12 and 1 while other may think that it is between 1 and 2. So the span to find that insect is from 12 to 2. Similarly Vyas has mentioned the Nakshatra in the vicinity of the planet and therefore we have a scope of one Nakshatra on either side to find out the planet. Thus if our answer is between +13 deg. and -13 deg. from the given position we are successful. In my calculations I have achieved the perfect positions, but by chance, somebody gets a different position he is requested to consider a span of -,+ 13 degrees. The positions given by other scholars are far away than the positions recorded by Vyas, so they are not acceptable.

I request the scholars, to be careful while doing calculations not to take a retrograde position of the present planet, because that may give a false position. Please note that all the planets become retro- grade only apparently when our earth is approaching them. We need not consider their retrograde motion each year because their rotational periods around the Sun are fixed and in that they are seen retrograde from the earth apparently. We have to see if the last position of the planet is retrograde. This can be done easily by considering the position of the Sun and planet. Any external planet becomes retrograde when it is in the house from 5th to 9th from the Sun.

Please note that i have taken 365.25 days for a solar year. It covers the general leap years, but it does not take into account the leap years abandoned at centuries. At the interval of 400 years leap years are taken according to the modern scientific calendar. If these cen- tury years are considered, there may be an error of 50 days in 7500 years duration. As for dates these 50 days are automatically accounted for because we have taken the winter solstice as fixed on 22nd December, and it is referred by Vyas, while describing Bhishma's death. As far as the planets like Saturn, Rahu and Jupiter are con- cerned 50 days are immaterial because in 50 days the Saturn will move only 1.6 deg. while Jupiter 4.1 deg. as an average. Hence their error is negligible.

Now, we have seen that all the four important planets satisfy their positions as told by Vyas on 16th October 5562nd B.C. Hence we have no other way but to accept this date as the exact date of Mahabharat War.

Please note that, so far, not a single Scholar has shown a date with the planetary positions satisfying the description by Vyas in Mahabharat. Late Mr. C. V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte show 3102 B.C., but their Mars is in Ashadha, Jupiter is in Revati, Saturn in Shatataraka and Rahu in Jeshtha. Prof. K. Shrinivasraghavan, Mr. Sam- pat Ayangar and Sheshagiri show 3067 B.C. but they put Jupiter and Saturn in Rohini and Sun, Rahu, Mars in Jeshtha. Garga, Varahmihir and Tarangini show 2526 Before Shaka i.e. 2449 B.C. But their Mars comes in Dhanishtha, Jupiter and Saturn in Bharani and Rahu in Hasta. P.C. Sengupta gives 2448 with Saturn 356 deg., Jupiter 8 deg., Mars 157 deg., Venus 200 deg., Sun 200 deg., (Ancient Indian chronology" Calcutta University). The Western scholars as well as Romeshchandra Datta and S. B. Roy show 1424 B.C. but their Saturn is in Shata- taraka, Jupiter in Chitra, Rahu in Purva and Sun in Anuradha with no eclipse. Billandi Ayer shows 1193 years B.C. but his Mars comes in Mula, Jupiter in Purva Bhadrapada, Saturn in Purva Ashadha and Rahu in Punarvasu. At 900 B.C. as is proposed by many other scholars, Jupiter comes in Mula, Rahu in Vishakha and Saturn in Jeshtha. Thus not a single scholar could coroborate his date with the facts written by Vyas.Hence, their dates have to be dismissed. (C. V. Vaidya's Upasamhar page 94." Age of Mahabharat War").

I have shown all the planetary positions correct to the description of Mahabharat. In addition I have shown that the seasons tally with my date, and the seasons never tally with other dates. I have solved all the planetary riddles from Mahabharat which nobody could dare. So 16th October 5562nd BC. is the exact date of the first day of the Mahabharat War. At the beginning of the War, Vyas promised Dhrutarashtra that he will write history of the Kauravas; so most probably Vyas must have written the Astronomical data immediately.

URANUS (known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)
All the planets, viz., Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn and Rahu show correct positions mentioned in the Mahabharat on 16th December 5561 B.C. This must be the exact date of the Mahabharat War. After pin-pointing the exact date, it struck to me that the three additional planets mentioned with positions by Vyas, may be Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Vyas has named them as Shveta, Shyama and Teevra. Let us see if the conjecture is correct. We have to prove this with the help of Mathematics, because we have to go scientifically.

Vishesheena hi Vaarshneya Chitraam Pidayate Grahah....[10-Udyog.143]
Shevtograhastatha Chitraam Samitikryamya Tishthati....[12-Bheeshma.3]

In these two stanzas, Vyas states that some greenish white (Shveta) planet has crossed Chitra. This means that the planet was in Swati (or Vishakha, because Chitra and Swati are close together). This is the Sayan position hence Nirayan position is eight Nakshatras ahead in Shravan (or Dhanishtha). Neelakantha calls this "Mahapata" which means having greater orbit. Greater orbit indicates a planet beyond Saturn. Hence I assumed Shveta to be Uranus. Let us calculate and see if this true.
In October 1979, Uranus was at 206 degrees. Uranus takes 84.01 years per rotation. 1979 + 5561 = 7540. 7540/84.01 = 89.75122 turns. 0.75122 rotation means 270.4392 degrees. 206-270 = -64 = 296 degrees. This comes in the zone of Dhanishtha, but the star of Dhanishtha is at 297 degrees, so the position given by Vyas is confirmed. Hence Shveta must be Uranus.

In October 1883, Uranus was at 151 degrees. 1883 + 5561 = 7444 years. 7444/84.01 = 86.608498 rotations. 0.608498 turn means 219 degrees. 151-219 = 292 degrees. This is Shravan Nakshatra. So Uranus was in Shravan during Mahabharat War as stated by Vyas under the name of "Shveta".

1930 calculations show Uranus to be at 292.54 degrees or Shravan. Thus our mathematics proves that Vyas has given correct position of Uranus under the name of Shveta. This proves that Vyas had the knowledge of Uranus under the name of Shveta, supposed to have recently discovered by Herschel in 1781. Shveta means greenish white. Uranus is actually greenish white in colour. So Vyas must have seen Uranus with this own eyes. Uranus is of 6th magnitude and is visible to the naked eye according to the modern science.

Neelakantha of 17th century also had the knowledge of Uranus or Shveta. He writes in his commentary on Mahabharat (Udyog 143) that Shveta, or Mahapata was a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. Neelakantha was about 100 years before Herschel, who sup- posedly discovered Uranus. So we can conclude that one hundred before Herschel, Uranus was known to the Indian Astronomers and Vyas had discovered it at or before 5561 year B.C.

NEPTUNE (was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.)
In 1781 A.D., Herschel discovered Uranus; but its calculated positions never corroborated with the actual positions. So the experts thought of another planet beyond Uranus. They fixed its position by mathemat- ics, and at that site, it was discovered by German Astronomers in 1846 A.D. I have found that Neptune is also mentioned by Vyas in Mahabharat, under the name of "Shyama".

Shukrahah Prosthapade Poorve Samaruhya Virochate Uttare tu Parikramya Sahitah Samudikshyate....[15-Bheeshma.3] Shyamograhah Prajwalitah Sadhooma iva Pavakah Aaindram Tejaswi Naksha- tram Jyesthaam Aakramya Tishthati...[16-Bheeshma.3]
Here Vyas says that there was some luminary with Venus in Poorva Bha- drapada. He adds further that a bluish white (Shyama) planet was in Jyeshtha and it was smoky (Sadhoom). Saayan Jyeshta means Nirayan Poorva Bhadrapada, so this is the description of one and the same planet named by Vyas as Shyama. Neelkantha calls it "Parigha" in his commentary on Mahabharat. Parigha means circumference, so this planet may be at the circumference of our solar system.; and so may be Nep- tune. Let us see by Mathematics is this statement is true. We will determine the position of Neptune on 16th December 5561 B.C.

Neptune takes 164.78 years per rotation. It was at 234 degrees in 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 years. 7540 divided by 164.78 gives 45.75798 rotations. 0.75798 turn means 272.87 degrees. 234 - 272.87 = -38.87 = 321.13 degrees. This is the site of Poorva Bhadrapada. So Neptune was in Poorva-Bhadrapada during 5561 B.C.

In 1948, Neptune was at 172 degres. 1948 + 5561 = 7509. 7509/164.78 gives 45.56985 turns. 0.56985 turn means 205 degrees. 172-205 = -33 =360-33 = 327 deg. This is the zone of Poorva Bhadrapada.

In 1879, Neptune was at 20 degrees. 1879 + 5561 = 7440 years. 7440 divided by 164.78 gives 45.15111 turns. 0.15111 turn means 54.39 deg. 20 - 54.39 = -34.39 = 360 - 34.39= 325.61 degrees. This is Poorva- Bhadrapada.

Thus the position of Shyama or Parigha is factually proved in the case of Neptune. Thus, we conclude that Vyas did know Neptune too. Vyas might have got his knowledge by Yogic Power or by Mathematics or by using telescopic lenses. Mathematics was far advanced then, that is why ancient Indian sages fixed the rate of precession of Equinoxes accurately. Even the world famous scientist Gamov praised the sages for their remarkable work in Mathematics. So could have mathematically calculated the position of Shyama or Neptune.

Mirrors are mentioned in the Mahabharat. So lenses too might have been present at that time. They had Microscopic Vision (Shanti A. 15,308). As microscopic vision was present, there might be telescopes too. Planets can be seen with mirrors as well as lenses. Vyas must have "seen" Neptune; its proof lies in the fact that he says that it is bluish white (Shyama). Neptune is, in fact, bluish white in colour. Hence we conclude that Neptune was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.

PLUTO (was also known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)
Krittikaam Peedayan Teekshnaihi Nakshatram......[30-Bheeshma.3]
Vyas states that there was one Nakshatra, i.e, some immobile liminary troubling Krittika (Pleides) with its sharp rays. This "star" in Krit- tika must have been some "planet". It must have been stationary for many years, that is why Vyas called it Nakshatra which means a thing that does not move according to Mahabharat itself [Na Ksharati Iti Makshatram].

Hence the Nakshatra was a planet moving very slowly like pluto which takes nine years to cross one Nakshatra of 13 degrees. My assumption that this Nakshatra was Pluto gets confirmed by B.O.R.I (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute?) Edition which states thus :
Krittikasu Grahasteevro Nakshatre Prathame Jvalan...... [26- Bhishma.3]
Some editions mention 'Grahasteekshnah'. Thus Teevra, Teekshana and Nakshatra are the names of one and the same planet (graha) which was in Krittlka in 5561 B.C. Let us see if Vyas has given these names to Pluto and if Pluto was in Krittika. It is stated that Krittika was troubled with sharp rays by that planet - this indicates that it was Nirayan Krittika.

Pluto was at 175 degrees in 1979. It takes 248 years per rotation. 1979+5561=7540 years. 7540 divided by 248 gives 30.403223 turns. 0.403223 turn means 145 degrees. 175 - 145 = 30 degrees. This is the site of Krittika. Thus it is proved beyond doubt that Vyas bas men- tioned the position of Pluto, which was discovered to the modern world in 1930. Vyas could have used his Yogic Vision or mathematical brain or a lens or some other device to discover Teevra, Teekshna' or Nakshatra or Pluto.
Thus all the three so-called 'New' planets are discovered from Mahabharat. It is usually held that before the discovery of Herschel in 1781 AD, only five planets were known to the world. This belief is wrong because Vyas has mentioned 'seven Great planets', three times in Mahabharat.

Deepyamanascha Sampetuhu Divi Sapta Mahagrahah....[2-Bhishma.17]
This stanza states that the seven great planets were brilliant and shining; so Rahu and Ketu are out of question. Rahu and Ketu are described as Graha' 23 meaning Nodal points. (Parus means a node). Evidently Rahu and Ketu are not included in these seven great planets. The Moon also is not included, because it was not visible on that day of Amavasya with Solar Eclipse. From the positions discovered by me and given by Vyas it is seen that Mars, Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune were the seven great planets accumulated in a small field extending from Anuradha to Purva Bhadrapada. So they appeared to Ved-Vyas as colliding with each other, during total solar eclipse.

Nissaranto Vyadrushanta Suryaat Sapta Mahagrahah....[4-Karna 37].
This stanza clearly states that these seven great planets were 'seen' moving away from the Sun. As these are 'seen', Rahu and Ketu are out of question. This is the statement of sixteenth day of the War, naturally the Moon has moved away from the Sun. Hence, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune are the seven great planets mentioned by Vyas.

Praja Samharane Rajan Somam Sapta grahah Iva......[22-Drona 37].
Here again seven planets are mentioned, excluding the Moon.

Even if we do not consider the planetary positions, from the above three stanzas, it is clear that seven planets are mentioned which do not include the Sun, Moon, Rahu and Ketu. Naturally the conclusion is inevitable that Vyas did know Uranus (Shveta) and Neptune (Shyama) as planets.

If they were known from 5561 years B.C. then why they got forgotten ? The answer is simple, that these two planets, Uranus and Neptune were not useful in predicting the future of a person. So they lost impor- tance and in the course of time they were totally forgotten. But, in any case, Neelakantha from 17th century knew these two planets very weIl. Neelakantha is about a hundered years ancient than Her- schel, and he writes that Mahapata (Uranus) is a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. He also mentions the planet 'Parigha' i.e. Neptune. 22 So both were known in India, at least one Hundered years before Herschel. Vyas is 7343 years ancient than Herschel, but still he knew all the three planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

Kshaya or Vishvaghasra Paksha

A fortnight of only thirteen days is told by Vyasa which occured just before the great War. Such a fortnight comes at the interval of 22 years. Calculations show that at 5562nd B.C. Kshaya Paksha did occur. It had occured 1962 and 1940. 1962+5562 = 7524 is completely divisi- ble by 22.

Amavasya confirmed

Krishna and Karna fixed the day of War on Amavasya (Udyog 142). Vyas also indicates in Bhishma 2 & 3 that the War started on the day second Amayasya, because two successive Amavasyas appeared then. Bhishma died on the day after 67 (58+9) nights from the onset of the War, on the occasion Uttarayan i.e. 22nd December. So the War must have commenced on 16th October. Let us see if Amavasya comes on this day.
In 1979, Amavasya was on 21st of October. Amavasyas repeat after the intervals of 29.53058 days. The Lunar year is of 354.367 days while the Solar year is 365.25 days. 1979+5561 = 7540 multiplied by 365.25 and divided by 354.367 gives 7771.5616 Lunar years. 0.5616 Lunar year means 199.0125 days. 199.0125 divided by 29.53058 gives 6.7392005. This indicates that 6 Amavasyas are completed and 0.7392005 lunar month or 22 days are left. These 22 days are left for 21st October and we have to go behind upto 16th October. So adding these 6 days to 22 we get 28 days. After 28 days Amavasya can occur. After 29 days it always occurs. Thus on 15th and 16th October 5562nd year B.C, there were two successive amavasyas as mentioned by Vyas.
Another method gives the same conclusion. At the interval of 19 years the Amavasya falls on the same date. 19x365.25 divided by 29.53058 gives 235.00215. So in 19 years 235 Amavasya are completed. I found that on 17th October 1963, there was an Amavasya. 1963+5561 = 7524 divided by 19 gives 396. This division is complete, so there was an Amavasya. Thus it is established that Vyas has reported Amavasya correctly.

Vyas has mentioned that there was Solar as well as Lunar eclipses in one month at the time of Mahabharat War. Calculations confirm that in October 5561 year B.C, both the Solar and Lunar eclipses did occur. Rahu and Ketu were in Uttara Ashadha at 273 deg. & 279 deg. so total eclipse of the Sun took place on the Margashirsha Amavasya day Only 13 days earlier, according to Vyasa, there was Pournirma with lunar eclipse, causing pallor of the Moon. Thirteen days earlier the sun would have been 13deg. behind at (279 - 13 =) 266 in Purva Ashadha. It was Pournima so the Moon was diagonally opposite at (266-180=) 86 deg. in Punarvasu, just beyond Mruga, so it was Margashirsha Pournima though it is wrongly or enigmatically told to be Kartika Pournima. Rahu was at 273 deg., so Ketu was diagonally opposite in Punarvasu, so the ellipse of the moon was possible which was not total.

A Big comet
Vyas has mentioned that at the time of Mahabharat War a big comet was seen just beyond Pushya Nakshtra. There are many comets. Indian Astro- nomical works refer to more than 500 comets, but big comets are very few. Haley's comet is one of the big comets which comes at the regu- lar intervals of 77 years. It was seen in 1910 and 1987. If we add 1910+5561 = 7271. 7271 is divisible completely by 77. Evidently it seems that it was Haley's comet was seen at the Mahabharat War.

All the twelve planets confirm their said positions on 16th October 5561 years B.C. along with two Amavasyas, two eclipses, Kshaya Paksha and a Comet. Thus, in all 18 mathematical positions fix the same date. Therefore, we have to accept this date of the Mahabharat War, if we want to be scientific. Please note that all the twelve planets will come in the same positions again only after 2229 crores of years. That means it will never happen again in the life of our earth, because life of the earth is only 400 crores of years. So the date of the Mahabharat War is pin-pointed as 16th October 5561 B.C.

Hereunder is provided a short table dates of important Mahabharat events in years. (Dates and Tithis in years in Rama Samvat assuming Shri Rama Samvat 1st January. 1 equivalent to 1st Jan 7323 B.C. Rama's birth date has been conclusively proved to be 4th Dec. 7323 B.C.( "Vastav Ramayan").


Going to forest 4th Sept. 5574 BC

Kitmeet Killed 7th Sept. 5574 BC

Going underground 19th May 5562 BC

Keechak killed 1st April 5561 BC

Anukeechak-Massacre 2nd April 5561 BC

End of secret life 9th April 5561 BC

Cows stolen 15th April 5561 BC

Arjuna exposed 16th April 5561 BC

All pandavas exposed 19th April 5561 BC

Marriage of Uttara 4th May.
& Abhimanyu.

Krishna set out for a treaty. 27th Sept.

Stay at Upaplavya 27th Sept.

Stay at Vrukshthala 28th Sept.

Dinner to Brahmins 29th Sept.

Entry into Hastinapur 30th Sept.

Krishna meets Kunti etc. 1st Oct.

Invited for meeting 2nd Oct.

First meeting 3rd Oct.

Second meeting and an attempt 4th Oct.
to arrest Krishna.

Third meeting Vishvaroopa 7th Oct.

Stay at Kunti 8th Oct.

Krishna meets Karna. War 9th Oct.

Krishna returns 9th Oct.

Pandavas preparation 11th Oct.
Balaram's visit.

Mahabharat war started 16th Oct.

Abhimanyu killed 28th Oct. 5561 BC.

End of War 2nd November 5561 B.C.

Yudhishthira crowned 16th Nov. 5551 BC.

Bhishma expired 22nd Dec. 5561 BC

Pandava campaign 15th Jan. 5560 BC
for wealth

Parikshita born 28th Jan. 5560 BC

Pandavas return 25th Feb. 5560 BC

Ashvamedh Deeksha. 1st March 5560 BC

Return of Arjuna Horse 15th Jan. 5560 BC

Ashvamedh yajna 22nd Feb. 5559 BC

Dhrutarashtra went to forest 18th Aug. 5545 BC

Pandavas visited Kunti 18th Aug. 5543 BC
Vidura expired

Death of Kunti, Dhrutarashtra, Sept./Oct. 5541 BC
and Gandhari

Yadava Massacre 5525 B.C.

Parikshit Dead 5499 B.C.
P.V.Vartak, Swayambhu (in Marathi), Ved Vidnyana Mandal, Pune